The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Early Detection of Pulmonary Lesions on Chest X-ray: Experience from Two Retrospective Studies in the Czech Population

Černý, M., Kvak, D., Schwarz, D., Mírka, H., & Dandár, J. (2024). Role umělé inteligence včasném záchytu ložiskových změn plicního parenchymu při rentgenovém vyšetření hrudníku: zkušenosti ze dvou retrospektivních studií na české populaci. Časopis lékařů českých. ISSN 0008-7335.

Abstract:

In recent years, the healthcare industry has undergone significant changes associated with the exponential growth of technological innovation. Among the most significant trends is the use of artificial intelligence (AI). Based on research, particularly in the field of radiodiagnostics, AI has the potential to significantly increase the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. We focus on the potential use of AI in the diagnosis of focal changes in the lung parenchyma, which may be a manifestation of lung cancer, based on chest scans. Although this modality has a lower sensitivity compared to other methods, especially computed tomography (CT) of the chest, due to its routine performance it very often represents the first examination in which lung lesions are detected. We present our own solution based on deep learning methods to increase the detection of lung lesions, especially in the early stages of the disease. We then present the results of our previous original work validating the proposed model in two different clinical settings: a catchment hospital setting with a low prevalence of findings and a specialized cancer center setting.

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